Opposites Attract: Assortative Mating and Immigrant–Native Intermarriage in Modern Sweden

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Opposites Attract: Assortative Mating and Immigrant–Native Intermarriage in Modern Sweden


This paper studies exactly just exactly how immigrant–native intermarriages in Sweden are connected with specific traits of indigenous people and patterns of assortative mating. Habits of educational- and age-assortative mating which can be comparable to the ones that are in native–native marriages may mirror openness to immigrant teams, whereas assortative mating patterns that suggest status factors declare that nation of delivery continues to act as a boundary when you look at the marriage market that is native. The analysis makes use of Swedish register information which cover the complete Swedish populace for the amount of 1991–2009. The outcome from binomial and multinomial logistic regressions show that low status of natives when it comes to economic and demographic faculties is connected with intermarriage and therefore intermarriages are described as educational and age heterogamy more than are native–native marriages. The findings suggest that immigrant ladies in addition to immigrant guys be more appealing wedding lovers if they’re significantly more youthful than their indigenous partners. This will be specially real for intermarriages with immigrants from specific parts of origin, such as for example spouses from Asia and Africa and husbands from Asia, Africa, in addition to center East. Gender variations in the intermarriage habits of indigenous gents and ladies are interestingly tiny.


A distinct function of numerous wedding areas is homogamy in spousal option. Lovers are generally comparable pertaining to socioeconomic status (Kalmijn 1991), age (van Poppel et al. 2001), training, competition, and faith (Blackwell and Lichter 2004). While there clearly was increasing similarity in specific characteristics such as for example education and age over several years (Schwartz and Mare 2005; Van de Putte et al. 2009), there is a decline in homogamy when it comes to nation of delivery through the increase of intermarriages between natives and immigrants in Europe. Footnote 1 Scholars usually learn immigrant–native intermarriage within the context of immigrant integration and regularly consider intermarriage because the step that is final the assimilation procedure (Gordon 1964). an extremely neglected part of this is certainly that “it takes two to tango”: it entails just as much willingness in the element of natives to intermarry because it does in the section of immigrants. This research addresses a subject which have hitherto been understudied for the reason that it analyses the (inter-)marriage behavior of indigenous Swedes. Footnote 2 centering on the indigenous bulk expands the intermarriage literary works and results in a better comprehension of societal openness towards minorities into the majority’s wedding market. The characteristics of both the native partner and the immigrant partner, this paper is an important contribution to the intermarriage literature by taking into account. Intermarriage is frequently considered to signal the truth that various groups that are social the other person as equals (cf. Kalmijn 1991), but wedding also can replicate hierarchies that are social excluding specific groups through the pool of prospective lovers and reproducing social structures within these. Where intermarriages show systematic habits of hypergamy and hypogamy, this is certainly, indigenous lovers marry up or down in faculties such as for example age and training, it may be figured the lovers don’t consider one another as social equals (Merton 1941). Intermarriage habits consequently have actually the possible to show implicit https://hookupdate.net/womens-choice-dating/ hierarchies of immigrants when you look at the wedding market. Footnote 3

The specific concern that this paper tries to response is whether intermarriages are linked to the status of native Swedes aswell as that of immigrants within the Swedish wedding market. By analysing the average person traits of natives which are connected with intermarriage along with the educational- and age-assortative mating patterns of intermarried partners as opposed to the simple frequency of these unions, this research plays a part in a formerly understudied area into the intermarriage literary works. It makes use of top-notch register information since the whole population of residents in Sweden and includes all marriages and non-marital unions with typical young ones that have been created in the time 1991–2009.

Background and past Research on Immigrant–Native Intermarriages in European countries and Sweden

Intermarriage between immigrants and natives has grown generally in most europe in previous years and it is closely linked to the percentage of immigrants in the united kingdom (Lanzieri 2012). This basic upsurge in intermarriage in European countries is essentially associated with an amazing boost in intermarriage with partners from nations away from EU (de Valk and Medrano 2014). Intermarriage prices in Sweden continuously have risen since the 1970s, in addition to enhance is significantly steeper for males compared to ladies. Figure 1 shows the proportions of immigrant–native intermarriages (defined right right right here as marriages from A swede that is native footnote and their foreign-born partner) and native–native marriages (thought as marriages between two indigenous partners) of all of the newly contracted marriages created by indigenous Swedes from 1969 to 2009. At the time of 1991 the register extracts found in this paper contain an identifier for non-marital cohabitations with typical young ones, that makes it feasible to report the stocks of native–native cohabitation and immigrant–native cohabitation.

Stocks of native–native unions and immigrant–native unions of most unions of indigenous men that are swedish feamales in Sweden 1969–2009

For indigenous ladies, the stocks of immigrant–native wedding and cohabitation are close in proportions and also have changed just marginally because the 1990s; for indigenous guys, there was a wider space with immigrant–native cohabitation showing reduced prices with small enhance in the long run and immigrant–native marriages showing greater prices with a more pronounced enhance in the long run.

In previous years, intermarriage between indigenous Swedes and immigrants ended up being dominated by intermarriage along with other citizens that are nordic specially Finns (Cretser 1999). The increase in intermarriages can be largely accounted for by the increased number of marriages with partners from outside Europe, and Thailand has replaced Finland as the most frequent country of origin for intermarried immigrant women (although Finland remains the most common country of origin for intermarried immigrant men; Haandrikman 2014) in more recent years.

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